ENGLISH OBJThis is actually the 2019 neco historyAnswers as questions sent to our subscribers on WHATSAPP, if you are looking for 2021 WAEC/NECO Answers midnight before the exam, try contacting us.
NIGERIAN ðŸ‡³ðŸ‡¬ HISTORY
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According to one traditional account, the original people and founders of the Benin Empire, the Bini (or Edo people), were initially ruled by the Ogisos (Kings of the Sky). The city of Ibinu (later called Benin City) was founded in 1180 C.E.
About 36 known Ogiso are accounted for as rulers of the empire. On the death of the last Ogiso, his son and heir apparent Ekaladerhan was banished from Benin as a result of one of the Queens changing the message from the oracle to the Ogiso. Ekaladerhan was a powerful warrior and well loved Prince. On leaving Benin he travelled to the west of the present day Nigeria to the land of the Yorubas. At that time the Yoruba oracle said that their King will come out of the forest and when Ekaladerhan arrived at Ife, he was received as a King.
He changed his name to Imadoduwa meaning "I did not misplace my royalty" and became The Great Oduduwa of The Yoruba Land. On the death of his father, the last Ogiso, a group of Benin Chiefs led by Chief Oliha came to Ife, pleading with him to come back to Benin to ascend the throne. Oduduwa's reply was that a King cannot leave his Kingdom but he had seven sons and would ask one of them to go back to Benin to rule as the next King.
Oranmiyan, the son of Ekaladerhan aka Oduduwa, agreed to go to Benin. He spent some years in Benin and came back to Ife after his wife gave birth to a son named Eweka. Eweka I became the first Oba of Benin. In 1440, Oba Ewuare (Ewuare the Great) came to power and turned the city-state into an empire. Around 1470, he named the new state Edo.
At the summit of precolonial society was the king ( oba ), who was the focal point of all administrative, religious, commercial, and judicial concerns. He was the last resort in court matters, the recipient of taxes and tribute, the controller of trade, the theoretical owner of all the land in the kingdom, and the chief executive and legislator. As the divine king, he crystallized generalized ancestor worship in the worship of his own ancestors. It is in his office, then, that the various hierarchies met.
The members of the king's family were automatically part of the nobility. His mother was a title holder ( iyoba ) in one of the palace societies and maintained her own court near Benin City, and his younger brothers were sent to be hereditary chiefs of villages throughout the kingdom, thus constituting part of a limited, rural-based elite. Besides the king and his family, the political structure consisted of the holders of various chiefly titles, who were organized into three main orders of chiefs: the seven uzama , the palace chiefs, and the town chiefs. These various orders of chiefs formed the administrative
bureaucracy of the kingdom, and their main concern was to augment the king's civil and ritual authority. They constituted the state council, which had an important role in creating laws, regulating festivals, raising taxes, declaring war, and conducting rituals. The kingdom was formerly divided into a number of tribute units, which corresponded to local territorial groupings. Each was controlled by a title holder in Benin City, who acted as the intermediary between the villagers and the king and whose main duty was to collect taxes and tribute in the form of money (cowries) and goods (cattle, yams, etc.). The income the king received from these sources enabled him to carry on elaborate state rituals. The king could also call on villagers to supply labor for the upkeep of the royal palace. At the end of the eighteenth century, for example, senior chiefs rebelled against the king, and a long civil war ensued, which the king finally won. According to oral traditions, several obas were in fact deposed.
In contemporary Nigeria, Edo State officials consult with the Benin king and chiefs.
6) Discuss the factors that led to the rise of old oyo empire
Many factors were responsible for the rise of old oyo empire part if which is
1) Able Leadership; oyo was fortunate to have able,wise and warlike leaders the like Aalafin gaha, Aalafin Abiodun they were brave and agile.
2)Geographical Location; this favoured old oyo as it was situated in an open area thus encouraging expansion also attack from south is difficult with the presence of deep forest.
3) Bouyant Economy; thier bouyant economy tremendously helped thier rise agricultural pruduce, domestication of animals,artwork, figurines,exchanging of goods with thier neighbouring towns the economy was highly diversify they also got involved in trade as katunga was towards trans-sharan trade route
4) Dynamic armyMilitary Command ; they have a dynamic military formation Aare-ona kakanfo as the chief commander of the army, with 70 eshos dividing them 10/10 to 7 oyo mesi the military comprises of young men and hunters. In the same vein
5) Type of Government;there is check and balance whenever the aalafin can not rule arbitrarily, the oyomesi were vested with power to checkmate the Aalafin they too were headed by Bashorun the prime minister
(i)It was export import oriented economy colonial economy specialized in the production of raw material for the metropolitan industries and importation of manufactured goods to Africa.
(ii)Colonial economy was characterized by establishment of weak and small processing industries. The few factories that were established were for import substitution. This was because colonies had to remain in producers of raw materials.
(iii)Some of the colonies were mono-culture. They specialized in the production of one major commodity for example, Mauritius specialized in the production of sugar, Ghana produced cocoa and Liberia produced rubber.
(iv)Colonial production was based on coercion. The colonial economies were supering imposed and the Africans were forced to produce for export rather than for their own consumption.
(v)The colonial economy involved consumption of physical infrastructure such as road and railways in order to transport raw materials to the coast labourers to the plantation and mining centre.
In pursuing the goal of regional economic cooperation and development, Nigeria helped create ECOWAS, which seeks to harmonise trade and investment practices for its 16 West African member countries and ultimately to achieve a full customs union. Nigeria also has taken the lead in articulating the views of developing nations on the need for modification of the existing international economic order.
Nigeria has played a central role in the ECOWAS efforts to end the civil war in Liberia and contributed the bulk of the ECOWAS peacekeeping forces sent there in 1990. Nigeria also has provided the bulk of troops forECOMOG forces in Sierra Leone . Nigeria has enjoyed generally good relations with its immediate neighbours. In other words Nigeria had ratified the protocol, and would allow citizens of ECOWAS member states live and work in Nigeria without visas and work permits. However, only immigrants in six professional categories would be allowed.
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