1)Power of Judicial Review
The power of Judicial Review refers to that concession given to the judiciary to review laws or aspect of the law and say exactly what the law is saying. Since the judiciary has the power to say what the law is, it served as a limitation to the powers of the legislature.
2)Influence of the Executive
Most legislatures now wait for bills that are proposed by the executive before they discuss and pass them into law. These bills are extensively discussed by the executive and fine tuned before their introduction in Parliament. Apart from this, if the executive does not append his signature to the bill, it cannot become a law. This limits the powers of the legislature.
3)Lack of time
The work of the modern legislature has become so enormous that there is hardly enough time to adequately discuss issues that are brought before it for deliberation. Consequent to this problem of lack of time is the fact that the bills are sometimes not properly scrutinized before they are passed into law. The danger is that, the legislature may pass a bad law.
The duty of the party whip is make sure they whip members on their side of the political divide into line. The party whip can direct members of his party to vote in a certain direction on a national issue. This means that Members of Parliament are not free to vote using their own conscience and the interest of their constituents.
5)Influence of Pressure Groups
Pressure groups exist to influence laws favour of their members. Various pressure groups use various methods, including lobbying and demonstrations, to put pressure on the legislature to pass laws that inure to the benefit of their members. In 1995, pressure groups put pressure on the legislature to alter the threshold of VAT charge.
2(a) A bicameral legislature simply refers to a particular body of government that consists of two legislative houses or chambers.
(i) Prevention of hasty legislation: bicameralism is defended on the ground that it prevents hasty legislation. It is said that the second chamber by interposing delay and restrain will prevented the enactment of hastily passed bills of the other chamber.
(ii) Safeguard of individual liberty:
Secondly, Bryce opined that second chambers of legislature can safeguard individual liberty. In his opinion, one chamber possesses an innate tendency to be tyrannical and corrupt in the absence of a check by the existence of another house of equal power.
(iii) Representation of different interests:
Thirdly bicameral legislature is defended on the ground that it gift representation to the different interests. For instance, the Rajya Sabha in India has 12 nominated members with repute in the fields of art, science, literature and social service.
(iv)These persons fields not otherwise be elected to the Lok Sabha whose membership is confined to elected representatives only.
(v) Smooth working of the legislature:
Fifthly, it facilities the working of the legislature. Complexity and the bulk of modern legislation demand that the second chamber should exist to lighten the burden of the popular chamber. Non-controversial bills may be introduced in the upper chamber.
A simple majority is a vote taken by an organization where at least 51% of the members must vote yes to approve a bill before it is accepted. The United States national government has two lawmaking bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate, which share responsibility for making the nation's laws.
A. discourages election malpractices
B. gives an accurate result of an election
C. is very suitable to large countries
D. is simple and cheap to operate
E. is useful in developing countries
Features of Nigeria foreign policy
I) friendship and cooperation: the country maintains Friendship and cooperation with other nations of the world that respect her territorial sovereignty
ii) non-alignment: to remain nonaligned with any of the power blocs,western or eastern blocs.west representing capitalism and east communism
iii) clear and practical policies: adoption of clear and practical policies regarding Africa with a view to bringing about cooperation and progress to all independent African states
iv)Respect for territorial integrity: Nigeria has respect for other states in Africa based on the principle of non interference in the internal affairs of other states
V)peaceful resolution of crisis: joining other states to find peaceful resolution to crisis as in ECOMOG troops in liberia, sierra-leone etc
(i) Promotion of Cooperation and development
(ii)Harmonization of Agricultural, Economic, Monetary and Industrial Policies
(iii)Abolition of trade restrictions and Customs Duties.
(i)The adoption of the Macroeconomic Convergence Report by the ECOWAS Convergence Counci and Establishment of the ECOWAS Monetary Institute (EMI)
(ii)Adoption of methodological guides for the harmonization of Public Finance Statistics, Government Financial Operations Tables (TOFE), External Trade Statistics, Balance of Payment (BOP) and International Investment Position (IIP).
(iii)Free Movement of goods and persons boosted with the adoption of the ECOWAS Biometric Identity Card to facilitate mobility and promote security in the region.
(iv)Feasibility study for the extension of the West African Gas Pipeline Network concluded And Development of Regional Power Market with the setting up of regulatory and economic environment.
Federation serves as a check on the emergence of dictatorship in a state.
(ii)Common defense against external aggression:
A federation enables the federating units to come together to defend themselves against external attack.
(iii)It promotes local participation: A federation allows people at the local level to take part in the political process of their country.
(iv)Pooling of resources:
A federation is economically advantageous because it allows the various federating units to pool their resources together for development of the entire country.
(v)Encourages rapid social and economic development:
Federalism promotes rapid social and economic development in all the federating units.
(i)To provide free education at all levels for all citizens of Nigeria with effect from October 1, 1979.
(ii)To integrate rural development with a view to increasing food
(iii)To provide health facility for all citizens.
(i)The party won some governorship elections in 1979 and 1983 e.g. Lagos, Ogun, etc.
(ii)The party won some seats in National Assembly (Senate and House of Representatives both 1979 and 1983.
(iii)The party pursued its free education programme in the states it controlled.
(iv) It provided free medical facilities in all the states controlled by the party.
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