Simple majority system: This is also known as "first past the post" under this system, a candidate with the highest number of votes cast will be declared the winner of the election. Britain, Nigeria etc are examples of this system.
Absolute Majority System: Here, a candidate must score more than half of the votes before he can be declared the winner.
Second ballot system: This system involves two ballots. At the first instance, the successful candidate is required to obtain an absolute majority of the votes cast(that is 50 percent plus one). If this was not obtained by any of the candidates, a second ballot is required and those having unacceptably low result would be eliminated. The winning candidate is then required to obtain a simple majority.
Proportional representation: The essence of this is to allocate seats in proportion to the votes cast in multi-member constituencies. It is a method used to elect representatives into the legislature
Constitution is a body of agreed rules and principles stating how the powers pf governing a country are given and how these powers are to be exercised.
Constitutionalism on the otherhand is the adherence to the letter and spirit of the constitution, that is, those who govern should govern according to the dictates of the law.
(i) History of the people: It is necessary that the history of the people should be considered in preparing the basic rules that govern them.
(ii) Acts of parliament: The laws or enactments by parliaments from part of constitutional framing.
(iii) Customs and traditions: They are the beliefs, institutions, norms and values of the people and these are important in the formulation of the constitution.
(iv) Conventions: These are accepted political precepts and practices which often form a part of the instruments of a country's constitution.
(v) Judicial precedents: These are past judgments at law courts on constitutional matters and they are often from the basis of new constitution.
Sovereignty: This means the supreme power and authority of the state over the citizens. It is the power of the state (exercised by a body of persons known as sovereign) to make laws and enforce them with all the means of coercion. It cares to employ, without any interfernce by other states. The idea of sovereignty originated from Jean Bodin(1530 - 1590), a French political thinker and philosopher.
Legitimacy: This is political concept which refers to the acceptance and recognition by the citizens of a country, the rights of their rulers to govern. A government is considered legitimate if it comes to power through constitutional means.
Political power: This is the power derived from the people and the constitution eg the elected president.
Political authority: It is the authority conferred on person holding political offices, eg the president, legislators etc. Policies made and executed are based on the provisions of the constitution.