(i)upper course; it marks the veg8 of source of a river found around highland
(ii)middle course; laterals erosion dominant over vertical erosion.
(iii)lower course; deposition of material.
Gradient =difference in height/horizontal distance
In Tapevi ; = 350m
In Tsebanka ; = 500m
Difference in height = 500-350 =150mv
1cm = ½km
8cm = 4km
Gradient = VI/HE = 150/4000 = 3/80 = 3:80
That is 3m for every covered.
14cm (minor road)
1cm = ½km
14cm=½*4/¹ = 7km
50m contour intervals.
Plutonic rocks is the process When magma never reaches the surface and cools to form intrusions (dykes, sills etc) the resulting rocks are called plutonic.
Volcanic rocks is the process When magma does reach the surface during a volcanic eruption, the rocks that form there are called lavas or volcanic rocks.
(i)Classified by texture and composition.
(ii)Rarely has fossils.
(i) construction purpose: Some rocks like granite and sandstone are quarried and used for road, bridge and building construction.
(ii) Tourist centre: huge rock masses on the mountain serve as tourist centre e.g olumorock in Abeokuta and Zuma rock in suleja.
(iii) source of food nutrients: Rock salt such as sodium chloride from sedimentary rocks provide minerals used in cooking.
(i)Precipitation; is simply any water form that falls to the Earth from overhead cloud formations. As an element of weather, precipitation determines whether outdoor activities are suitable or if the water levels of creeks and rivers will rise.
(ii)Temperature; is simply the measurement of how hot or cold a region is on a day-to-day basis. The weather aspect of temperature can change throughout the day, however, it generally falls within a certain range of predictable highs and lows.
(iii)Humidity; is the measurable amount of moisture in the air of the lower atmosphere. The humidity element of weather makes the day feel hotter and can be used to predict coming storms. However, the humidity element of climate is the prolonged moisture level of an area that can affect entire ecosystems
(iv)Atmospheric pressure; is basically the "weight" of the air. It is used primarily by meteorologists to monitor developing storms that can seem to come out of nowhere. While typically considered an aspect of weather, certain regions of the world exist in zones where changing atmospheric pressures form part of the predictable climate.
(i)It keeps the temperature of the earth constant so that it is suitable to support life.
(ii)It protects the earth from smaller meteors.
(iii)It Contains N², O² and other gases which are necessary to support the life form on the earth.
(iv)It Facilitates combustion and without the atmosphere combustion is not possible.
Flooding are natural occurrences where an area or land that is normally dry abruptly becomes submerged in water. In simple terms, flooding can be defined as an overflow of large quantities of water onto a normally dry land.
(i)Heavy Rain; Rain is the leading contributor to most of the flooding cases witnessed across the world. Too much rain causes water to flow overland contributing to flooding. In particular, it is due to high rainfall intensity over a prolonged period.
(ii)River Overflows; Rivers or streams can overflow their banks. This happens when the river or stream holds more water upstream than usual, and it flows downstream to the neighboring low-lying areas, typically referred to as the floodplains.
(iii)Lakes and Coastal Flooding; Lake and Coastal flooding occurs when large storms or tsunamis causes the water body to surge inland. These overflows have destructive power since they can destroy ill-equipped structures to withstand water’s strength such as bridges, houses, and cars.
(iv)Dam Breakage; Dams are man-made structures used to hold water from flowing down from a raised ground. The potential energy stored in the dam water is used to generate electricity. At times, the walls can become weak and break because of overwhelming carriage capacity.
(i)Build up the earth around the house. This can help direct water away from the house during the rain.
(ii)Sandbags can make a small scale levee or dam to protect a property from rising flood waters.