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Linear settlement is a (normally small to medium-sized) settlement or group of buildings that is formed in a long line.
Many follow a transport route, such as a road, river, or canal though some form due to physical restrictions, such as coastlines, mountains, hills or valleys. Linear settlements may have no obvious centre, such as a road junction.
Linear settlements have a long and narrow shape
Nucleated settlements are towns where buildings are close together, often clustered around a central point. The location of a nucleated settlement can be determined by a range of factors, including being easy to defend, close to a water supply or located at a route centre.
A nucleated pattern often develops where defence is a priority, such as inside a meander (a bend on a river) or on a hilltop (for instance, Caerphilly). Cardiff
developed as a nucleated settlement
because its naturally moated castle could be easily defended.
(i) A town is a human settlement that is larger than a village.
(ii) A town is a distinct government entity while a village can be a part of a town or a separate settlement.
(iii) A town has an established marketplace where people can buy their necessities while a village does not have a market.
(iv) A town has a mayor and a seat of government while a village does not.
(v) Banks, stores, and other commercial establishments are located in towns rather than in villages.
(i) A village does not have a mayor nor does it have local laws since it is a part of a town
(ii) A village is a clustered human settlement or community , larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town
(iii) A village is surrounded with many many trees.Fruits,vegetables are Sow here and there. Sometimes a village doesn't have electricity all the time
(iv) A rural habitation of size between a hamlet and a town.
Tourism is the activities of people traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for leisure, business or other purposes for not more than one consecutive year.
*PICK ANY FOUR*
(i) *Income Generation*
If properly used, tourism generated income can be tremendously beneficial to the host
country and it’s local communities. Tourism generated income can be used on a national and local level to better education, improve infrastructure, to fund conservation efforts, and to promote more responsible tourism.
The tourism industry encompasses many different areas, so it also creates jobs in many different areas. With tourism comes hotels, restaurants, car rental agencies, tour companies, service stations, souvenir shops, sports equipment rentals, and much more. All of this creates many different levels of employment for people in a given community.
The additional revenue that comes into a community also benefits the local council or
governments. It means more tax dollars, which allows public projects to be launched or developed. This means the infrastructure improves, with new roads being built, parks developed and public spaces improved. The better facilities brings in more visitors, but is a fantastic benefit to local residents, especially when there is enough revenue to build new airports, schools and hospitals, which all support the economic development even further.
(iv) *Foreign Exchange Generation*
In addition to income creation and employment opportunities, tourism equally helps a
country to overcome balance of payment problem. This is because international tourists who buy tourism services add value to the receiving country’s revenue accounts in that nation’s invisible transaction.
(v) *Benefit Local People*
The introduction and development of tourism allows local people an opportunity for
economic and educational growth that would not otherwise be available. In addition, it allows both the tourist and the local community a chance to experience other cultures, which broadens understanding.
(vi) *Economic Benefits*
Tourism can provide direct jobs to the community, such as tour guides or hotel
housekeeping. Indirect employment is generated through other industries such as
agriculture, food production, and retail. Visitors’ expenditure generates income for the local community and can lead to the alleviation of poverty in countries which are heavily reliant on tourism.
(vii) *Environmental Benefits*
Tourism provides financial support for the conservation of ecosystems and natural resource management, making the destination more authentic and desirable to visitors.
It also adds more value to the local tourism business.
In addition to bringing prosperity to an economy, it also allows an economy to develop a new form of income. This acts as an insurance policy in case of hard times, because the additional dollars coming in can help support traditional industries in case they come under financial pressure.
*PICK ANY THREE*
(i) *Terrorism and Security Challenges*
Terrorism, robberies, kidnappings etc. contribute to Africa's problems in the Africa sector. Africa has had its own share of insecurity issues and they keep visitors far away from the continent. It is so bad now that even other continents warn their Countries of the dangers involved in visiting Africa.
(ii) *Air Travel Problems*
Africa airports operate at level far less than the average standard of airports in other
Continents. The first place a foreign visitor sees in a country is its airports. If airports
offer bad services, no one would want to come back. Also, in local air travel, we face
problems like abrupt flight cancellations and delays, increase in ticket prices and so on.
This is one word that is used commonly in Africa. Corruption has eaten deep into our
Countries and this is so obvious everyone can see it. Corruption at top levels of government, stealing of public funds and budget ‘padding’ contribute problems to the
(iv) *Crime Rate*
The rate of poverty in Africa keeps getting worse, leading to an increase in crime rate and petty theft. The United States Department of State once warned US citizens of the
dangers of travelling to Nigeria. This warning was pinned to a number of things including “violent crimes committed by ordinary criminals, as well as by persons in police and military uniforms, which can occur throughout the country”. A warning like this and the evidence of some of such crimes poses a great threat to tourism development in Africa.
(v) *Medical/Health Care Concerns*
The political elite and well to do in Africa are constantly travelling abroad for medical
attention, painting the picture of an unreliable heath care system in the continent. Health is a major concern for people of all classes and if travellers are not convinced of good medical treatment if the need arises, it deters them from coming to Africa
*Possible Solutions to Problems of Tourism in Africa*
(i) Tackling security issues within the continent and bringing terrorism to a zero- level. This will give a facelift to the continent as a whole, even to the eyes of the international media.
(ii) We need our improvement in our airports so that they can meet up with the
standards of other airports around the world. Airlines operating in the continent should also discharge their duties effectively. They should also prepare well ahead of emergencies.
(iii) Corruption can be checked if our anti-corruption agencies like United Nation Office on Drugs and Crimes ( UNODC) do their job effectively. The judiciary also comes into play to attend to cases of corruption fairly and promptly
(iv) Implement policies that are in favour of development of the continent and
(v) Provision of adequate infrastructure that support tourism such as standard hotels, electricity, good road networks, sea ports where necessary and intentional boost of the medical sector to make it more reliable for citizens and foreigners alike.
*Fuel And Power*
(i) The energy are being gained and derived from the extraction oil and petroleum
(ii) The gases that serve as source of fuel are sold
(i)metal are produced which are good and better in roofing
(ii)extraction of ores and alloys are gained which some of them are better in building
(i)they produce some chemical such as pesticides the one who kill the pest
(ii)they produce the product of chemicals which are very useful on farmland as fertilizers
(i)they produce fabric which are day to day business
(ii)they are source of income which add in continuity' in every geographical area
(i) Supplying of food during every year of harvesting in every year which lead to an increase in food supply
(ii) Disease reduction is also one of the important of food processing
(i) Source of income: Sale of agricultural products like yam, meat, egg etc enables farmers to earn some form of income.
(ii) Foreign exchange earnings: The export of cash crops like cocoa, cotton, groundnut, palm oil enables the nation to earn foreign exchange.
(iii) Provision of clothing and shelter: Agriculture provides raw materials for clothing and shelter which are obtained from cotton and timber respectively.
(iv) Providing of market for industrial goods: Agriculture provides market for industrial goods like fertilizers, herbicides, farm machines and implements
(i) Education and modernization
(ii) Poor infrastructure
(iii) Government policies
(i) By training and raising the level of education. Skilled and educated workers can sustain the durability of mechanized farm tools. Modern agricultural education programs for farmers is a needed tool to change the current situation.
(ii) Upgrade the Agricultural Research Council to supervise, coordinate, and implement agricultural development.
(iii) Introduction of new government programs to provide the incentives for able-bodied youths to be involved in the farming.
(i) They help in the production of goods and therefore they help in Nigeria economy
(ii) They are source of income and they create job opportunity in Nigeria
(iii) They increase the morality of the inhabitants and the continuity of spending out cash
(iv) It increase the ratio of import and export and help in economic development
(i) Industrial Inertia
(ii) Efficient Organisation
(iii) Banking Facilities
(v) Government policies.
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